What is Organic Chemistry

What is Organic Chemistry

Let us know what is Organic Chemistry. Organic chemistry is called organic chemistry . The word organic means organic. Initially, chemical compounds obtained from living beings were called organic substances. Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry in which we study the compounds of carbon (Organic Chemistry is that branch of chemistry in which we study the compounds of carbon.) but the carbon itself, carbonates, bicarbonates, cyanates of metals, etc. The study is still done only in inorganic chemistry.

Therefore, except carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbonates of metals and bicarbonates of metals, etc., all compounds of carbon are called organic compounds and the branch of chemistry in which organic compounds are studied is called organic chemistry. it is said.

The Swedish chemist Berzelius hypothesized that organic substances were formed under the influence of a great force and that they could not become substances without the contribution of that force, that is, they could not be made in the laboratory. This theory became famous as the Vital Force Theory.

In 1828, the famous German chemist Wohler suddenly synthesized urea in the laboratory by heating a mixture of two inorganic compounds ammonium sulphate and potassium cyanate.

(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (ammonium sulfate) + 2KCNO (potassium cyanate) → 2NH 4 CNO (ammonium cyanate) + K 2 SO 4

NH 4 CNO (ammonium cyanate) → NH 2 CONH 2 (urea)

This invention of Vohvar caused a great setback to the theory of life-force . In 1844, Kolbe synthesized acetic acid from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Berthelot synthesized methane in 1856.

classification of organic compounds

Organic compounds can be divided into two main parts-

  1. Aliphatic or Open Chain Compounds: Organic compounds in which all the carbon atoms are connected in an open chain are called aliphatic compounds. In these, carbon atoms can be connected in straight or branched chains. For example-

(a) Normal butane or normal pentane is a compound having straight or simple chain-

Such as- normal butane, normal pentane

(b) Iso butane, iso pentane and neo pentane are compounds with branched series-

Such as – iso butane, iso pentane and neo pentane

The word aliphatic is derived from the Greek word aliphos , which means fat. Methane is considered the father of all aliphatic compounds.

  1. Closed Chain or Cyclic Compounds – The compounds in which carbon combines with each other to form a closed chain or cycle are called closed chain or cyclic compounds . On the basis of the structure of the chain, cyclic compounds are further divided into two categories-

(a) Carbon-cyclic or Homoyclic Compounds Those cyclic compounds which are made up of only carbon atoms. Carbon is called cyclic or isocyclic compound . Carbon-cyclic compounds are again divided into two groups-

( i) Aromatic Compounds: The closed chain of this class of compounds is made up of six carbon atoms. Just as methane is considered to be the father of all aliphatic compounds, benzene is considered to be the father of all aromatic compounds. The word aromatic is derived from aroma which means fragrance . Aromatic compounds are benzene, phenol, aniline etc.

(ii) Alicyclic Compounds: The properties of some cyclic compounds are more similar to those of aliphatic compounds than aromatic compounds even though they are closed chain. That is why they are called ali (from aliphatic) + cyclic (cyclic) = alicyclic compound . They contain more hydrogen atoms than aromatic compounds. They do not have one-bond and double-bond alternately in the cycle like aromatic compounds. Cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane etc. are alicyclic compounds.

(b) Heterocyclic Compounds: Those cyclic compounds whose closed chain is made up of atoms of elements other than carbon, are called heterocyclic compounds. For example, pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine etc. are heterocyclic compounds, in which nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen are heterogeneous atoms respectively.

Reactive Radical

The radicals present in an organic compound on which the main properties of that compound depend are called functional groups. For example, ethyl alcohol is made up of two radicals, ethyl (-C 2 H 5 ) and hydroxyl (-OH), but its main properties depend on the hydroxyl radicals. Hence -OH radical is the reactive radical of ethyl alcohol.

Major organic compounds and their reactive groups
organic compoundsreactive grouporganic compoundsreactive group
aldehyde-GIVEketones> C = O
ester—COORcoboxylic acid—COOH
amine—NH 2anhydrideRCOOCOR
nitro—NO 2amide—CONH 2
cyano—CNiso cyano—NC
phenyl—C 6 H 5vinylCH2=CH
acetyl—СOCH 3annealed–NHCOR
benzoyl—COC 6 H 5benzyl—CH 2 C 6 H 5
oxime= NOHhydrazon= NNH 2
What is Organic Chemistry

Organic compounds 

Organic compounds are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and other elements. There are often covalent bonds between them and they are soluble in organic solutions only. Examples of these are methane , chloroform , acetic acid , carbohydrate , urea , etc. Their presence is more in organic matter. The major groups of organic compounds are alkanes , alkynes , alcohols , alchoic acids , aldehydes , ketones , ethers , esters , alkyl cyanides ,alkyl amide etc. There are more than one million organic compounds in nature.

Organic compounds have a very important role in the life system. They contain hydrogen as well as carbon . For historical and traditional reasons, some carbon compounds are not classified as organic compounds. Among these , carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are the main ones. All biomolecules such as carbohydrates , amino acids , proteins , RNA and DNA are organic compounds. Compounds of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons . Methane (CH 4) is the hydrocarbon of the smallest molecule. Ethane (C 2 H 6 ), Propane (C 3 H 8) etc. comes after this, in which one carbon is added respectively. Hydrocarbons can be divided into three categories: the ethane series, the ethylene series, and the acetylene series. The ethane series of hydrocarbons are saturated, meaning that the hydrogen content in them cannot be further increased.

Ethylene has a double bond (=) between the two carbons, whereas compounds with triple bonds (º) in acetylene are temporary. It can easily get oxidised and halogenated. Many derivatives of hydrocarbons can be prepared, which have diverse uses. Derivatives such as chloride, bromide, iodide, alcohol, sodium alkoxide, amine, mercaptan, nitrate, nitrite, nitrite, There are hydrogen phosphate and hydrogen sulfate. The unsaturated hydrocarbon is more reactive and combines with many reactants to form derivatives easily. Many such derivatives have proved to be of great importance from the industrial point of view. Many valuable solvents, plastics, anthelmintic drugs etc. have been obtained from them. Oxidation of hydrocarbons yields alcohols, ethers, ketones, aldehydes, fatty acids, esters, etc. Alcohol can be primary, secondary and tertiary. Their ester fluids are aromatic. Many scented liquids can be prepared from them.

Frequently Asked Question

What do you understand by organic chemistry?

Organic chemistry is a major branch of chemistry, the second major branch is inorganic chemistry. In addition to carbon and hydrogen, organic compounds can contain other molecules, such as nitrogen (nitrogen), oxygen, halogen, phosphorus, silicon, sulfur etc.

What is the difference between organic and inorganic?

The main difference between organic and inorganic compounds is the presence of a carbon atom. Organic compounds contain one carbon atom and also usually a hydrogen atom to form hydrocarbons. For its part, almost no inorganic compound contains carbon and/or hydrogen atoms.

What is organic and inorganic compound?

Organic compounds and inorganic compounds form the basis of chemistry. The primary difference between organic vs inorganic compounds is that organic compounds always contain carbon whereas most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon. Furthermore, almost all organic compounds contain carbon-hydrogen or C-H bonds.

How many types of reagents are there?

There are two types of attacking reagents and they are called electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents.

What are the sources of organic compounds?

Organic compounds occur in all living plants and animals. Therefore, organic compounds are also extracted from natural materials obtained from living things. Carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, RNA and DNA are the main sources of organic compounds.

How many compounds are there?

(1) Organic compounds: Derivatives of carbon, hydrogen fall in this category. (2) Inorganic compounds: Except hydrocarbons, all other compounds come under this. (1) Homogeneous mixture: In this, the properties and properties of each part are the same, such as aqueous solution of salt.

15 thoughts on “What is Organic Chemistry

  1. Cl2 Molar Mass - Top Future point February 21, 2022 at 12:09 PM

    […] about this chemical element and its properties, as well as characterize chlorine according to its position in the periodic table. ( Cl2 Molar […]

  2. H2SO3 , Sulfurous Acid - Top Future point February 21, 2022 at 1:53 PM

    […] Sulfurous acid (also salicylic acid) is the chemical compound with the formula H2SO3. There is no evidence that sulfurous acid is present in solution , but the molecule has been detected in the gas phase. However, the conjugate bases of this pseudo-acid contain the common anion, bisulfite (or hydrogen sulfite) and sulfite. Sulfurous acid is an intermediate species in the formation of acid rain from sulfur dioxide.Raman spectra of a solution of sulfur dioxide in water show only signals due to the SO molecule and the bisulfite ion, HSO. The signal intensity corresponds to the following equilibrium: […]

  3. Molar Mass of CaCl2  - Top Future point February 21, 2022 at 3:08 PM

    […] Can be made by neutralizing with. Calcium chloride is usually a hydrated solid with the generic formula CaX2(H2O)x, where x = 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6. These compounds are used primarily for de-icing and dust control. . Because anhydrous salt is hygroscopic, it is used as a desiccant. […]

  4. Co2 Lewis Structure - Top Future point February 22, 2022 at 7:59 AM

    […] Lewis structures are useful for describing chemical interactions, they are limited in that they do not account for aromaticity, nor do they accurately […]

  5. So2 Polar or Nonpolar - Top Future point March 6, 2022 at 3:34 AM

    […] Let’s know today whether So2 is Polar or Nonpolar. difference between the two elements. SO2 molecule has a folded shape like H2O with C2v symmetry. It has a net dipole moment, which is the resultant vector of the two SO moments. Therefore it is polar . […]

  6. Is HCl Polar or Nonpolar - Top Future point March 6, 2022 at 6:15 AM

    […] Let us know if this HCl is polar and nonpolar. Actually simple HCl is a polar molecule. Chlorine has higher electronegativity than hydrogen. Thus, it attracts electrons to spend more time on its end, giving it a negative charge and hydrogen a positive charge. HCl is neither polar nor nonpolar. […]

  7. Is BCl3 Polar or Nonpolar - Top Future point March 6, 2022 at 6:27 AM

    […] Is BCl3 polar or nonpolar ? Boron trichloride, or BCl3 , is nonpolar . Three chloride atoms have a negative charge, and a boron in the center has an equal but positive charge. Boron sits at the center of the molecule and has three valence electrons, so it balances three chlorides. Let’s start friends now about BCl3 Polar or Nonpolar […]

  8. ChCl3 Polar or Nonpolar - Top Future point March 6, 2022 at 7:15 AM

    […] Come friends, today we will learn about ChCl3 Polar or Nonpolar. Which will help you to solve any question. So guys let’s start now […]

  9. Br2 Polar or Nonpolar - Top Future point March 6, 2022 at 12:58 PM

    […] Let us know today whether Br2 is polar or nonpolar. Bromine is a chemical compound with the chemical formula Br2. It exists as a fuzzy reddish-brown liquid at room temperature. It easily evaporates to form a gas of uniform color. In the periodic table, it is located at the third lightest halogen position. Many people doubt whether Br2 is polar or not. In this article, I will answer this question and cover its properties and applications. […]

  10. Co2 Polar or Nonpolar - Top Future point March 6, 2022 at 2:43 PM

    […] What is Co2 Polar or Nonpolar. Carbon dioxide is a colorless gas with the chemical formula CO2 present in our environment and has no odor in low concentrations. We, humans, are also sources of this gas as we release carbon dioxide in various forms through our bodies. Many of you may have doubts about whether the molecule of CO2 gas is polar or not. We will discuss this and discuss its properties and uses.So, is CO2 polar or nonpolar? CO2 (carbon dioxide) is a nonpolar molecule because of its linear symmetric shape. Although carbon and oxygen differ in their electronegativity, which makes the C=O bond polar, the polarity of the two opposite C=O bonds is canceled out by each other due to the symmetric shape and results in one with zero dipole moment. is nonpolar. , a polar molecule.Carbon dioxide gas is colorless and odorless and its density is 60% higher than that of the dry air around us. It is a naturally occurring gas in the Earth’s atmosphere. […]

  11. Bridge Circuit - Top Future point April 21, 2022 at 1:21 PM

    […] A bridge circuit is a topology electrical circuit in which two circuit branches (usually in parallel with each other) are “bridged” with them at some intermediate point by a third branch connected between the first two branches. The bridge was originally developed for laboratory measurement purposes and when it is used one of the intermediate bridging points is often adjustable. Bridge circuits now find many applications, both linear and non-linear, including instrumentation , filtering , and power conversion. […]

  12. Wien Bridge - Top Future point April 21, 2022 at 1:41 PM

    […] Vienna bridge is a type of bridge circuit that was developed by Max Wien in 1891 [1] The bridge consists of four resistors and two capacitors . At the time of […]

  13. Parasitic Capacitance - Top Future point April 21, 2022 at 2:05 PM

    […] voltages are passed together, electric charge accumulates in the electric field between them; This effect is […]

  14. Kelvin Bridge - Top Future point April 21, 2022 at 2:41 PM

    […] a measuring instrument used to measure unknown electrical resistors below 1 ohm . It is specially designed for measuring resistors which are manufactured as four terminal […]

  15. Wien Bridge Oscillator - Top Future point April 25, 2022 at 7:07 AM

    […] combined with a bandpass filter that provides positive feedback ., Automatic gain control, intentional non-linearity and accidental non-linearity limit the output amplitude in various implementations of the […]


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *