Let us know what is Organic Chemistry. Organic chemistry is called organic chemistry . The word organic means organic. Initially, chemical compounds obtained from living beings were called organic substances. Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry in which we study the compounds of carbon (Organic Chemistry is that branch of chemistry in which we study the compounds of carbon.) but the carbon itself, carbonates, bicarbonates, cyanates of metals, etc. The study is still done only in inorganic chemistry.
Therefore, except carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbonates of metals and bicarbonates of metals, etc., all compounds of carbon are called organic compounds and the branch of chemistry in which organic compounds are studied is called organic chemistry. it is said.
The Swedish chemist Berzelius hypothesized that organic substances were formed under the influence of a great force and that they could not become substances without the contribution of that force, that is, they could not be made in the laboratory. This theory became famous as the Vital Force Theory.
In 1828, the famous German chemist Wohler suddenly synthesized urea in the laboratory by heating a mixture of two inorganic compounds ammonium sulphate and potassium cyanate.
(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (ammonium sulfate) + 2KCNO (potassium cyanate) → 2NH 4 CNO (ammonium cyanate) + K 2 SO 4
NH 4 CNO (ammonium cyanate) → NH 2 CONH 2 (urea)
This invention of Vohvar caused a great setback to the theory of life-force . In 1844, Kolbe synthesized acetic acid from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Berthelot synthesized methane in 1856.
classification of organic compounds
Organic compounds can be divided into two main parts-
- Aliphatic or Open Chain Compounds: Organic compounds in which all the carbon atoms are connected in an open chain are called aliphatic compounds. In these, carbon atoms can be connected in straight or branched chains. For example-
(a) Normal butane or normal pentane is a compound having straight or simple chain-
Such as- normal butane, normal pentane
(b) Iso butane, iso pentane and neo pentane are compounds with branched series-
Such as – iso butane, iso pentane and neo pentane
The word aliphatic is derived from the Greek word aliphos , which means fat. Methane is considered the father of all aliphatic compounds.
- Closed Chain or Cyclic Compounds – The compounds in which carbon combines with each other to form a closed chain or cycle are called closed chain or cyclic compounds . On the basis of the structure of the chain, cyclic compounds are further divided into two categories-
(a) Carbon-cyclic or Homoyclic Compounds Those cyclic compounds which are made up of only carbon atoms. Carbon is called cyclic or isocyclic compound . Carbon-cyclic compounds are again divided into two groups-
( i) Aromatic Compounds: The closed chain of this class of compounds is made up of six carbon atoms. Just as methane is considered to be the father of all aliphatic compounds, benzene is considered to be the father of all aromatic compounds. The word aromatic is derived from aroma which means fragrance . Aromatic compounds are benzene, phenol, aniline etc.
(ii) Alicyclic Compounds: The properties of some cyclic compounds are more similar to those of aliphatic compounds than aromatic compounds even though they are closed chain. That is why they are called ali (from aliphatic) + cyclic (cyclic) = alicyclic compound . They contain more hydrogen atoms than aromatic compounds. They do not have one-bond and double-bond alternately in the cycle like aromatic compounds. Cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane etc. are alicyclic compounds.
(b) Heterocyclic Compounds: Those cyclic compounds whose closed chain is made up of atoms of elements other than carbon, are called heterocyclic compounds. For example, pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine etc. are heterocyclic compounds, in which nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen are heterogeneous atoms respectively.
The radicals present in an organic compound on which the main properties of that compound depend are called functional groups. For example, ethyl alcohol is made up of two radicals, ethyl (-C 2 H 5 ) and hydroxyl (-OH), but its main properties depend on the hydroxyl radicals. Hence -OH radical is the reactive radical of ethyl alcohol.
|Major organic compounds and their reactive groups|
|organic compounds||reactive group||organic compounds||reactive group|
|aldehyde||-GIVE||ketones||> C = O|
|nitro||—NO 2||amide||—CONH 2|
|phenyl||—C 6 H 5||vinyl||CH2=CH|
|benzoyl||—COC 6 H 5||benzyl||—CH 2 C 6 H 5|
|oxime||= NOH||hydrazon||= NNH 2|
Organic compounds are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and other elements. There are often covalent bonds between them and they are soluble in organic solutions only. Examples of these are methane , chloroform , acetic acid , carbohydrate , urea , etc. Their presence is more in organic matter. The major groups of organic compounds are alkanes , alkynes , alcohols , alchoic acids , aldehydes , ketones , ethers , esters , alkyl cyanides ,alkyl amide etc. There are more than one million organic compounds in nature.
Organic compounds have a very important role in the life system. They contain hydrogen as well as carbon . For historical and traditional reasons, some carbon compounds are not classified as organic compounds. Among these , carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are the main ones. All biomolecules such as carbohydrates , amino acids , proteins , RNA and DNA are organic compounds. Compounds of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons . Methane (CH 4) is the hydrocarbon of the smallest molecule. Ethane (C 2 H 6 ), Propane (C 3 H 8) etc. comes after this, in which one carbon is added respectively. Hydrocarbons can be divided into three categories: the ethane series, the ethylene series, and the acetylene series. The ethane series of hydrocarbons are saturated, meaning that the hydrogen content in them cannot be further increased.
Ethylene has a double bond (=) between the two carbons, whereas compounds with triple bonds (º) in acetylene are temporary. It can easily get oxidised and halogenated. Many derivatives of hydrocarbons can be prepared, which have diverse uses. Derivatives such as chloride, bromide, iodide, alcohol, sodium alkoxide, amine, mercaptan, nitrate, nitrite, nitrite, There are hydrogen phosphate and hydrogen sulfate. The unsaturated hydrocarbon is more reactive and combines with many reactants to form derivatives easily. Many such derivatives have proved to be of great importance from the industrial point of view. Many valuable solvents, plastics, anthelmintic drugs etc. have been obtained from them. Oxidation of hydrocarbons yields alcohols, ethers, ketones, aldehydes, fatty acids, esters, etc. Alcohol can be primary, secondary and tertiary. Their ester fluids are aromatic. Many scented liquids can be prepared from them.
Frequently Asked Question
What do you understand by organic chemistry?
Organic chemistry is a major branch of chemistry, the second major branch is inorganic chemistry. In addition to carbon and hydrogen, organic compounds can contain other molecules, such as nitrogen (nitrogen), oxygen, halogen, phosphorus, silicon, sulfur etc.
What is the difference between organic and inorganic?
The main difference between organic and inorganic compounds is the presence of a carbon atom. Organic compounds contain one carbon atom and also usually a hydrogen atom to form hydrocarbons. For its part, almost no inorganic compound contains carbon and/or hydrogen atoms.
What is organic and inorganic compound?
Organic compounds and inorganic compounds form the basis of chemistry. The primary difference between organic vs inorganic compounds is that organic compounds always contain carbon whereas most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon. Furthermore, almost all organic compounds contain carbon-hydrogen or C-H bonds.
How many types of reagents are there?
There are two types of attacking reagents and they are called electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents.
What are the sources of organic compounds?
Organic compounds occur in all living plants and animals. Therefore, organic compounds are also extracted from natural materials obtained from living things. Carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, RNA and DNA are the main sources of organic compounds.
How many compounds are there?
(1) Organic compounds: Derivatives of carbon, hydrogen fall in this category. (2) Inorganic compounds: Except hydrocarbons, all other compounds come under this. (1) Homogeneous mixture: In this, the properties and properties of each part are the same, such as aqueous solution of salt.